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Disease

H.PYLORI INFECTION

BACKGROUND

  1. pylori infection occurs when a type of bacteria called "H. pylori" infects a person's stomach.

Many people have H. pylori infection. Most of the time, H. pylori infection does not lead to any problems or cause any symptoms. But in some people, H. pylori infection leads to problems that can cause symptoms. These problems can include:

  • Open sores, which are called "ulcers," on the lining of a person's stomach or duodenum – The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine.
  • Stomach cancer

These conditions can sometimes cause pain in the upper belly, bloating, nausea, or vomiting.

DISEASE OCCURRENCE IN POPULATION:

The prevalence of H. Pylori infection in Pakistan was found to be 73.5% in males and 75.4% in females and increased with increasing age.

RISK FACTORS:

  • Living in crowded conditions: People have a greater risk of H. pylori infection if they live in a home with many other people.
  • Living without a reliable supply of clean water: Having a reliable supply of clean, running water helps reduce the risk of H. pylori.
  • Living in a developing country: People living in developing countries, where crowded and unsanitary living conditions may be more common, have a higher risk of H. pylori infection.
  • Living with someone who has an H. pylori infection: If someone living with the people having H. pylori, then they are more likely to develop H. pylori also.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:

Most people with H. pylori infection have no symptoms. But people who have ulcers can have symptoms that are caused by the ulcers. Common symptoms of ulcers can include:

  • Pain in the upper belly
  • Feeling bloated
  • Feeling full after eating a small amount of food
  • Not feeling hungry
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dark or black-colored bowel movements
  • Feeling more tired than usual

DIAGNOSTIC TEST:

Doctors can do different tests to diagnose H. pylori infection. These can include:

  • Blood tests
  • Breath tests – These tests measure substances in a person's breath after he or she has been given a special liquid to drink.
  • Lab tests that check a sample of a bowel movement for H. pylori infection
  • Biopsy – For this test, a doctor takes a small piece of tissue from the lining of the stomach. Then he or she looks at the tissue under a microscope. A doctor can do a biopsy during a procedure called an endoscopy. An endoscopy is a procedure that lets a doctor look at the inside lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

TREATMENT OPTIONS:

  1. pylori infection is treated with medicines. Most people need to take 3 or more medicines for 2 weeks. These can include:
  • Medicines to reduce the amount of acid that the stomach makes – This can help cure the infection and help ulcers heal.
  • Different types of antibiotics

People who are diagnosed with H. pylori infection should get treated, because treatment can:

  • Help ulcers heal
  • Keep ulcers from coming back
  • Reduce the chance that an ulcer will get worse or lead to cancer

It is important to follow all your doctors' instructions about taking your medicines. Let your doctor or nurse know if you have any side effects or problems with your medicines.

PRECAUTIONS:

  • Ensure a hygienic environment that is free of germs as this helps to keep H. pylori at bay.
  • Avoid drinking water or eating food that may be contaminated.
  • Wash your hands well with soap, both after using the rest room and before meals.

REFERENCES:

  • https://www.uptodate.com/contents/h-pylori-infection-the-basics?source=see_link
  • http://pjms.com.pk/index.php/pjms/article/view/1022
  • http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/h-pylori/basics/risk-factors/con-20030903
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